In our country, just as all compliments are reserved for the army, it has also been decided that only bad things should only be thought and said for the police. Perhaps this action of ours has made the psychological condition of the police like that of a young man who has only heard ridicule from the time of birth and has come to the conclusion that even if he does something good, why should anyone appreciate his virtue? So there is no need to change your “bad to worse” image by accepting fate. It is the result of the same mentality that we have that everyone is familiar with all the Companions of the first period of Islamic history who were “generals”, but one should ask who are the top police officers of the same period. So, stop telling the names of the top, the next one may ask the same question, whether there were policemen among the Companions? So let’s start the mention of this department from the first one.
The political history of us Muslims begins with the state of Medina. This fledgling state came into existence in a region that had never been part of any formalized empire or state. So whatever was to be started here had to be started from scratch and for the first time. And this process had to proceed gradually. Since initially, this state covered a limited area, its problems and needs were also limited in nature. Therefore, in the blessed life of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, its first foundations were established in such a way that the rights of the citizens were determined and for the protection of rights, the system of justice was also established in relation to punishment and people were also arrested.
Imprisonments were also made, cases were heard, and punishments were pronounced and given. But there were no regular organized institutions or departments. It was the custom of last Prophet (PBUH) that he would temporarily order someone for a task related to collective order, while he would also use some people permanently for certain tasks. Qais bin Saad bin Ubada Ansari, may Allah be pleased with him, is one of these permanent figures. From him, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ took over the tasks of arresting, imprisoning and punishing people almost permanently. Therefore, in the last part of his life, Hazrat Anas bin Malik (RA) said about Hazrat Qais that he was the “Sahib Al-Sharta” of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), meaning a police officer.
Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalani has written on this saying of Hazrat Anas bin Malik that Hazrat Anas is actually saying that Hazrat Qais was like the Sahib al-Sharta for the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. Because during the time of Rasulullah ﷺ, there was neither a formal police department nor the term Sahib al-Sharta. But this responsibility was entrusted to Hazrat Qais. As if the first police officer of Islam is Hazrat Qays bin Saad bin Ubadah.
In the history of the Islamic state, the establishment of institutions and departments began during the reign of Hazrat Umar. And it happened with unprecedented speed. For example, in the establishment of the judiciary, look at this principle, which is still Muslim today, that the judiciary will not be under the control of the government, but will be completely independent. Among the institutions and departments established by Hazrat Umar, the police department is included. You have named this department as “Construction”. While the post of Police Chief was given the name “Sahib-ul-Ahadar”. Not only this but Hazrat Umar was the first leader who issued an instruction to the Muslims not to give shelter to any criminal wanted by the police. A person who does so will be considered guilty of an aiding and abetting offense, and will also be arrested and punished.
Since this was the period when institutions were being established for the first time, Hazrat Umar (RA) would have directly participated in the management and administration of each institution so that the institution would be raised on the same lines that Hazrat Umar had envisioned. In this regard, a case is very important from the point of view of the police investigation. Because this is the first case in known Islamic history where a “chemical analysis” was also conducted during the investigation.
It so happened that a woman failed to trap a young Ansari Sahabi, so she decided to teach the young man a lesson. The woman mixed the white of the egg on her lower body and on her clothes as if making a commotion, saying, “Hey, I’m sick” and went straight to Hazrat Umar with a complaint and said, “So-and-so has disgraced her.”. The effects of which are also on my body. When Hazrat Umar asked for a report from the woman, he was told that semen was visible on the lower part of the complainant’s body and on her clothes. When Hazrat Umar started to issue the sentence, the accused youth said very indecisively, O Ameerul Momineen, do not be hasty, but investigate further. I am innocent, this woman was trying to trap me and now she is creating this drama after failing. Hazrat Umar asked Hazrat Ali for his opinion, so Hazrat Ali ordered boiling water. When Hazrat Ali poured this boiling water on the affected part of the woman’s clothes, it shrunk. Hazrat Ali also smelled it for further confirmation. And after that he said to Hazrat Umar that this substance is not sperm. When the woman was reprimanded in a harsh tone, she admitted that the incident of molestation did not happen, she had created a drama. What was revealed in the analysis of Hazrat Ali Karamullah Rabiyyah was that if hot water is poured on an egg, it becomes cooked and becomes food, but if the substance is poured on the semen, it is washed away. Thus we can say that Hazrat Ali Karamullah is the first forensic test person in the history of the Islamic State. Rather, it would be more appropriate to say that forensic tests are introduced entities.
Police and jail are inseparable. During the blessed life of Rasulullah ﷺ, people were also given prison sentences. And the form of this imprisonment would have been that the prisoners were tied to the pillars of the Prophet’s Mosque. So Hazrat Umar (RA) established the first regular prison in Islamic history during his time. This first prison was established in Makkah for which Hazrat Umar (RA) bought his house from Safwan bin Umayyah for four thousand dirhams and converted it into a prison. And then establish prisons in all areas. Jails were established in some areas by buying ready-made houses and in some areas by building them regularly. This establishment of institutions and departments had also become inevitable because the state was expanding rapidly and during the reign of Hazrat Umar, its boundaries had covered two million square miles. It was as a result of this spread that Hazrat Abu Huraira was no longer a resident of Madinah but was the Chief of Police of Bahrain. (to be continued).