On this day in history (April 9, 1241) Mongol armies defeated the allied forces of Poland and Germany in a battle known as Battle of Liegnitz. The battle took place at Legnickie Pole near the city of Legnica in the Duchy of Silesia.
A combined force of Poles and Moravians under the command of Duke – Henry II the Pious – of Silesia attempted to halt the Mongol invasion of Europe but failed. The battle came two days before the Mongol victory over the Hungarians at the much larger battle of Mohi.
While in the history of the Mongols, Genghis Khan and Halaku Khan are notorious for building minarets of human skulls.
Let’s take an in-depth review of the Mongol empire and their victories in the battles.
Who were Mongols?
The Mongols were one of many nomadic groups who lived in the vast open grassland planes of Eurasia. The Mongol empire was founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. Mongols are well-known for their deadly wars, brutal tactics, professional horse riding, and barbaric attitudes.
At its peak, it covered some 9 million square miles (23 million square km) of territory, making it the largest contiguous land empire in world history.
The Mongols were also famous for their tactics of warfare. Genghis Khan used his daughters by marrying them with the leaders of the areas he loved.
Some Important figures
Genghis Khan is considered the most important ruler of the Mongol empire. Genghis Khan ruled from 1206 to 1227, during which countless stories of oppression took place.
The empire was founded in 1206, when Temujin, son of a Mongol chieftain, assumed power and changed his name to Genghis Khan.
The young warrior had already defeated the Mongols’ most powerful leader and fomented dissatisfaction among his people’s aristocracy. But he proved to be one of history’s greatest leaders.
After Genghis Khan, his son Tolui Khan ruled the empire for only 3 years from 1227 to 1229. After which Ogedei Khan took the responsibility and ruled from 1229 to 1241.
Ogedei Khan was the third son of Genghis Khan and the second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the Mongol invasions of Europe and East Asia.
Guyuk Khan was the third great Khan of Mongol empire. He was the eldest son of Ogedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He reigned from 1246 to 1248.
Areas conquered by the Mongols
Historians regard the Mongol devastation as one of the deadliest episodes in history. Genghis Khan’s first campaign outside of Mongolia took place against the Xi Xia kingdom of northwestern China. After a series of raids, the Mongols launched a major initiative in 1209 that brought them to the doorstep of Yinchuan, the Xi Xia capital.
The Mongols next attacked the Jin Dynasty of northern China, whose ruler had made the mistake of demanding Genghis Khan’s submission.
In 1219 Genghis Khan went to war against the Khwarezm Empire in present-day Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Iran.
Despite once again being outnumbered, the Mongol horde swept through one Khwarezm city after another, including Bukhara, Samarkand, and Urgench.
The Mongols also left impacts on Korea, Tibet, and Southeast Asia, along with Poland, West Asia, and North India.
No one knows with any certainty how many people died during Genghis Khan’s wars. History claimed that the Mongols covered some 9 million square miles (23 million square km) of territory.